Wine 101


How much sugar does wine contain, and how is it controlled during the winemaking process?

All wine contains sugar. In dry reds it’s usually quite low, generally ranging from 0.1% to 0.4% (about 1/50th of soda or orange juice). Dessert wines on the other hand can be 10-20% sugar and sometimes even higher than that. In the U.S. we really don’t have much in the way of sugar standards for wine. In Europe it’s much more controlled and measured, with the following categories:

- Dry        up to 0.4%
- Medium Dry     0.5 – 1.2%
- Medium    1.3 – 4.5%
- Sweet        above 4.5%

In California wine, all sugar comes from grapes since it’s illegal in this state to add sugar that’s not from grapes. “Residual Sugar” is the term used for the amount of sugar in the wine when bottled, usually abbreviated to “RS” in wine technical notes. Usually RS is expressed as % or as g/L (grams per liter). One gram per liter is one part per thousand, or 0.1%. So, a wine is “dry” if it’s less than or equal to 40 grams per liter. Okay, enough numbers! Let’s talk about how winemakers manage sugar content.

Most times, RS in wine comes from the original sugar in the grapes that hasn’t been consumed by yeast during fermentation (conversion of sugar to alcohol). Wine grapes are very sweet, usually 18% - 25% sugar when harvested. Fortunately for those of us who enjoy alcoholic beverages, yeast is very efficient in converting sugar to alcohol, and in a matter of a few days can turn each 1% sugar into slightly more than half that amount by weight to alcohol (sorry…more numbers). So, sweeter grapes essentially make higher alcohol wines…to a point.

As alcohol rises in fermenting juice, the yeast slows down and eventually stops due to the anti-microbial properties of ethanol. Most wine yeasts won’t go beyond 15% alcohol, and usually stop well before that. That’s why higher-alcohol wines tend to have a sweet character to them – the yeast wasn’t able to finish. Under ideal conditions (moderate temperature, good juice nutrition, and a tough vigorous yeast strain) the alcohol can reach 18%, but that’s very rare. In late-harvest dessert wines, the very high starting sugar content of the grapes, often over 30%, also puts the brakes on yeast long before all the sugar can be consumed.

Port and other fortified wines are very sweet, so how’s that done? In the traditional Port process, the winemaker adds brandy (distilled wine, very high alcohol) to the fermenting juice part way through the fermentation, and the alcohol stops the yeast from consuming all the sugar. Adding brandy early makes a sweeter port, and later makes a less-sweet one.

Chilling is another method of controlling wine RS, sometimes used in white wine production. All biological organisms need some measure of heat to grow, and yeast will stop growing if you chill the wine enough. So, we stop the fermentation as in the Port process, but we use temperature rather than alcohol to do the trick. Special tanks with jackets of circulating refrigerated liquid quickly cool the wine to 35-40 degrees and stop the yeast from growing further.

Finally, the winemaker might add a little grape juice (fresh, frozen, or from concentrate) back to the wine after fermentation to finesse RS. Most often this is done just prior to bottling as a final fine adjustment to the wine’s flavor and character. A tiny amount of sweetness, barely detectable by the human tongue, can make the wine feel smoother, soften its acidity, boost fruitiness, and extend the finish. Though not often used (and not necessary) on highest-end luxury dry wines intended for long cellaring, this technique is perfectly acceptable for medium bodied, fruity mid-priced wines meant to be consumed at a fairly young age. 

Our Dulce Maria has an RS of 4.3%, putting it in the “medium” category, and is chilled to suppress malo-lactic fermentation, which balances out the sweetness, while adding complexity and elegance. In our 2017 Late Harvest Primitvo, we let one of our Primitivo vineyards ripen to 32 degrees brix at harvest (25 is the norm). This allows the wine to ferment to a higher level of alcohol, while maintining some residual sweetness. The higher alcohol is balanced with the sweetness (at 5.0% it's firmly in the "sweet" category), giving this wine a nice port like flavor, while maintaining the Primitivo character.


Wiens Sangiovese always seems to be heavier than other Sangioveses around. What do you do differently?

The Italian heritage Sangiovese grape variety can make a broad range of wines depending on vineyard practices, winemaking techniques, and varieties used in the final wine blend. This grape can make wonderfully fruity light wines and roses, medium reds with spicy/smoky notes along with the fruit, and even big age-worthy big reds that have full tannins and rich flavors. Prices for these wines can range from a few dollars for an every-day Chianti to over $100 for the best Italian Brunellos.

Normally a very productive variety, the Sangiovese vine tends to be quite vigorous with big berries and large nearly football-sized clusters when grown with deep fertile soils, a hot climate, and ample water. Fruit of this type will make a lighter style of wine. By restricting water, thinning the fruit & vine shoots, and growing in areas where the soil is less fertile and stresses the plants, the same variety will produce smaller berries, smaller clusters, and low yields. Wines produced from these intensely managed vineyards can be big, bold, full-flavored, and deeply colored.

In the cellar, the winemaker can increase wine intensity by leaving the skins & seeds in the fermenting wine for a longer period. Lighter wines will be pressed (the winemaking step where the new wine is squeezed out) in 4-7 days. For bigger style wines, the pressing might be done about 2 weeks after the initial crush. For example, our 2015 Sangiovese in this October wine club release was pressed after about 12 days on the skins & seeds. This extra contact time extracts more “stuff” from the grapes, making the wine more age-able, redder, and more richly flavored.

You may have heard about “Super Tuscans,” which are blends of Italian varieties such as Sangiovese & Barbera with other “bigger” wines that serve to bolster the main wine’s complexity and depth. This technique can be used with a varietal Sangiovese as well, only with smaller amounts of other wines in the blend so that the Sangio portion is still over 75% (to label a wine as a varietal, government rules require at least 75% of the blend to be the variety stated on the label). Our 2015 is 71% Temecula Valley Sangiovese, 15% Sage Sangiovese, and 14% Temecula Valley Petite Sirah. These proportions include just a touch of the bigger Petite Sirah to build muscle and personality without overpowering the elegance, balance, and fruitiness of the Sangiovese.

In order to learn more about Sangiovese wines and appreciate the differences among them, you might want to buy a few different variously priced ones and sample them side-by-side with your friends & family while enjoying a big plate of spaghetti. This might require digging into your pocket and paying dearly for a $50+ Italian Brunello, but if you love a good Sangio as much as we do, it will be fun and well worth it! Salud!


How does all of this season's rain affect the vineyards?

This season has been unusually rainy here in Temecula wine country, and for us grape growers it’s a blessing. Our boots and tractors may be a little muddier, but we’ve been in need of a wet winter.

There are a couple reasons for this, the first of which is soil salinity. The water we use to irrigate our vineyards has a small percentage of salt. On its own, the concentration of salt isn’t enough to cause problems, and actually provides beneficial micronutrients, but over time the salts can build up, increasing to toxic levels around the roots. If there is too much salt, the vine will dehydrate due to osmosis, causing stunted growth and eventually death. Bad news, right? The best way to allay this problem is a good soaking from Mother Nature. A heavy deluge of fresh rainwater will wash the salts deeper into the earth, past the vine’s roots. The roots will be refreshed, and happy to drink up again!

Another benefit from all this rain is water table regeneration. With many years of less than average rainfall, the natural water table lying below us has begun to dry up. This is not good for our more remote vineyards that rely on well water. Well water at our prized San Ignacio vineyard has been a challenge, so we’ve had to dig deeper and deeper wells to pull enough water to irrigate the vines. With this vineyard in particular, we’ve taken an approach already widely used in Valle de Guadalupe (our neighboring wine country south of the border), which is to supplement the wells with trucked in water. You can probably imagine this isn’t an ideal solution.

Can too much rain be bad? After the fall harvest, the vines go dormant. This means all the leaves fall off, and the vine goes into a sort of hibernation. They still take up a little water to keep their vitals going, but they are for the most part asleep. During this season there’s really no damage from heavy rainfall. In the spring, the vines wake up and start pushing out new growth, with tiny flowers that will become the vintage’s grape clusters. If we happen to get rain when the flowers open for pollination, it can definitely become a problem. The pollen that usually floats through the air, or is transported by our insect friends to pollinate the flowers, but when it rains, that pollen get washed away, and many of the berries in the cluster remain unpollinated, not good!

If we happen to get a little rain after the fruit has set, again it isn’t that big of a problem, at least for a couple months. Rain becomes problematic again when the berries start to grow and expand, getting tighter in the cluster. Tighter clusters keep moisture within the bunch, and can rot from the inside out. The cluster may look fine from the outside, but when you pull away the outside berries, it’s a mess inside. This is a much bigger problem in areas that get more late summer rains, like Bordeaux, southern states, and the East coast. Temecula see very little late summer/early fall rain, so fortunately for us, this is rarely a problem.

As someone who loves the Southern California sun, I am definitely ready for beach weather, but as a winemaker, this rain has been a blessing. So, from me, our vineyard teams, and our little grape buddies, thank you for being patient during our dreary winter. We will all be paid back handsomely with even more delicious Temecula wine in our near future!


What are the Keys to a Great Cabernet Sauvignon?

Starting in the vineyard...

Excellence can often be found in Bordeaux-style wine blends. Shortly after the vines have sprouted in spring, our vineyard crew goes through and removes excess new growth by snapping off unneeded shoots, a process called “shoot thinning.” This opens up the vineyard canopy, allowing better sunlight penetration and improved air circulation.

Three to four weeks later, just after fruit set when the berries are BB sized, the crew returns for additional thinning, removing shoots that bear no fruit and stripping some cluster-shading leaves in the fruiting zone (leaf pulling). With Bordeaux grape varieties (Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Cabernet Franc, Malbec, and Petit Verdot) this is a very crucial step. Vegetative flavors develop in these grapes beginning when they’re very small if the baby clusters are shaded from sunlight. Once these undesirables form in the grapes, they’re very difficult to manage and virtually impossible to remove. With sunshine early on, the vegetable flavors of bell pepper, green bean, and asparagus are largely replaced with much more palatable fruit characteristics of blackberry, plum, and blueberry. Though a small amount of veggie flavor is an important contributor to a big Cab’s character and necessary for complexity, the wine will be better if fruit dominates.

As the growing season progresses, the crew goes through the vineyard one more time to do “shoot positioning,” a training process where sprawling shoots are tucked into canopy control wires in the vineyard trellis. This further enhances sunlight contact on the developing fruit.

A couple months later at harvest, we sort as we pick -- leaving any clusters that are unevenly ripe, diseased, or damaged. Only the best fruit reaches the winery.

Now, on to Winemaking...

The first step of grape processing on our crush pad is “de- stemming.” None of our fruit is crushed through rollers in the de-stemming process prior to fermentation – all is processed as whole berries. This results in smoother wine, less bitterness, and reduced vegetative flavor notes. Many wineries crush their clusters routinely in an attempt to extract more color and flavor from the grapes. Unfortunately, shredding skins and smashing seeds adds harshness we‘d rather minimize in wine. With better vineyard practices this step is not necessary – plenty of color and character is available without smashing the berries. We consider crushing a crutch that we don’t want or need.

After the grapes have fully fermented, we seal the tank and do what’s called “extended maceration” under a nitrogen blanket (the nitrogen excludes oxygen which can lead to spoilage). In other words, the berries stay in the tank along with the new wine so additional flavors and textures develop prior to pressing. With most red wines, the fermentation/maceration period is roughly one week. With our big Cabs, we let it gently extract much longer, for 5-7 weeks, before pressing to separate the new wine from the pomace (leftover skins & seeds).

After pressing, the wine moves to a stainless steel tank to settle out suspended solids (tiny bits of skin & seed). After roughly a month in the tank, our new Cab is transferred to oak barrels. Several months of barrel aging is critical to making a truly grand Big Red. Typically our Cab spends 18-22 months in oak… developing, softening, and taking on new toasted oak flavors of caramel, vanilla, cocoa, and brown spice. Several times during the aging process, we sample each barrel and determine how it’s doing.

When barrel aging has shaped the wine adequately, we recombine it into tanks and queue for bottling. Any final adjustments, blending, and stabilization are done at this time. Total time from bud break to bottling is roughly 2 – 2 ½ years. Quite a long process!

Finally, after bottling, additional aging takes place in bottle for a period of 4-24 months before we offer our Cabs for sale. During this stage, the young Cab softens further, develops bottle bouquet, and becomes more complex and interesting, awaiting its rightful place in your home cellar, on your dinner table, or wherever you might enjoy this “King of Red Wines.”



Does wine color affect anything other than how it looks?

In short, yes, very much. Wine pigments are quite active chemically. Called anthocyanins, these pigments come from grape skins and are produced when sunlight reaches the clusters, causing the berries to respond and create their own sunscreen of sorts. They protect the maturing grapes from burning in the sun.

So, how do these pigments affect the wine? They soften and protect it at the same time. Their antioxidant properties couple with tannins to allow longer aging, one reason that red wines are more age-able than whites. These chemicals also have anti-bacterial properties that help keep the wine from turning to vinegar. Also, as wine matures, pigments act as bookends for tannin chains, tying up the rough ends and reducing the perceived astringency of young wine tannins. In general, if you have a faintly colored red wine that is very tannic and astringent, it’s not going to get much better by laying the bottle down in your cellar. Deeply colored wines, on the other hand, will soften as they age because the pigments react with the astringent “puckery” tannins and make them more silky and smooth on the palate.

Another interesting thing about anthocyanin pigments; the higher the quantity in the wine, the more stable the color becomes. It’s a strength-in-numbers thing, every molecule helping to protect the others from becoming oxidized and turning brown, or just visibly disappearing altogether. As red wine ages, the tint goes from bright red to brick red, indicating the pigment is starting to lose some of its protective properties. That doesn’t mean the wine has gone bad, just that it’s changing and is more fragile. If you open a wine that’s tending toward brick red & brownish, drink it soon. Next day it might be a goner. Brighter red tint and can’t see through it? You can probably put the cork back in a half-gone bottle and keep it a day or two.

When judging the color of highly pigmented red wine, check the edge of the pour in the glass when held up to a white background. Bright red = young, muscular, vibrant, fruit forward. Brick red = matured, softer, more complex. Brown? Use it for cooking… unless you like it that way, and in that case, smile and drink up!


I’ve heard that Pinot Noir is a very “difficult” grape variety. Why is that?

“Difficult” is an understatement! Pinot Noir is tough to grow, troublesome to ferment, and most problematic when it comes to aging. It takes about twice the effort vs. other varieties to get a good product. Planting in the right climate, managing the vineyard carefully, and taking special steps in the winemaking process are all vital pieces of the Pinot puzzle.

Pinot grown in the wrong areas will not produce good wine. Cool weather is needed for the fruit to develop and retain delicate berry flavors. Hot climates will make wines with green flavors -- bean, olive, and pepper. A very small amount of these flavors can be a positive addition to complexity, but it doesn’t take much to overpower the fruity notes. Fortunately for us, there are parts of the Temecula Valley appellation that are cool enough for good Pinot. La Cresta and De Luz, on the far western side of the area with a greater ocean cooling influence, are suitable for this fickle grape.

Part of the cool-climate advantage is smaller vine size. Sunlight is vital to all red wine grape quality, and even more so with Pinot. Vines must be kept reasonably small with adequate sunlight hitting all clusters. Deficit irrigation, shoot thinning, shoot positioning, and leaf pulling are usually necessary to keep the canopy open, airy, and well lit.

Winemaking must be managed differently with Pinot grapes. Fermentations go extremely fast because this variety has a broad range of nutrients that yeast love. Yeast gives off quite a bit of heat during fermentation, which can build up in the must and actually kill the yeast before its job is done. More often though, the yeast grows so fast that nitrogen, an essential nutrient, is used up too quickly. As yeast multiplies, the old cells die off and release nitrogen back into the juice for reuse. If the multiplication outruns the release, you get a deficit. As a substitute nutrient, yeast uses sulfur when nitrogen is short, and guess what – sulfur stinks! These unpleasant aromas are a common defect in Pinot Noir. To avoid this situation, winemakers often add sources of nitrogen such as spent yeast formulations before and during fermentation, and keep the fermenting must cool to slow down the biochemical processes.

Have you ever had a Pinot that was thin and brown-tinted? They’re fairly common. This grape is fairly low in pigment. To make things worse, the coloring is not only low but is also less chemically stable than other varieties such as Syrah. In the Burgundy region of France, a common practice is to blend a small amount of Syrah into the Pinot to add color. Not only does this darken the wine, but it adds stability and helps the wine age more gracefully. Other wines including Petite Sirah or Merlot can give the same benefits without substantially changing or overpowering the natural Pinot flavors.

So, you may ask, why do we go to all this trouble to make a wine that’s such a pain? Well, it can be wonderfully unique, complicated, interesting, and one of the best food wines out there. Will it ever take over the top spots from heavy hitters like Cab or Merlot? Probably not. But it’s fun, different, and another great facet of the grand wine experience. Plus as winemakers, we sometimes need a challenge to keep us on our toes. So, sante to Pinot Noir!


How long should I let my wines age before drinking them?

Wines age at much different rates depending on variety, temperature, chemistry, and protection from light. In general, wines of lesser color & depth should be consumed at a younger age than those having higher astringency, acidity, and color. The color itself isn’t really a direct predictor of age-ability, but tends to correlate with it.

Interesting things happen as wine ages. Bottle bouquet, which is aroma that develops only under anaerobic (no oxygen) conditions after bottling, forms in the wine adding complexity and new flavors. Some of the more delicate aromas that evaporated during the bottling process (often referred to as “bottle shock”) are re-formed. The wine’s perceived tartness, caused by natural fruit acids, softens as some of the acid combines chemically with alcohol. Astringency, which is the rough puckery drying sensation caused by tannins that young red wines often exhibit, smoothes out and becomes silky. These changes start out positive but can turn negative if the length of time is too long. In general though, most red wines and some whites will improve by holding on to them for awhile after they are purchased.

Though time is the first concern, temperature is also directly related to aging rate. The rule of thumb is that for every 10 degree Celsius increase in temperature (18 degrees Farenheit) the rate of chemical reaction doubles. Wine stored at 73 degrees F would age about twice as fast as that stored at 55 degrees F. So, if you are impatient or are aging yourself, you might want to store your wine at a higher temperature so it can be enjoyed sooner.

Also, light can catalyze chemical reactions in wine, causing browning and undesirable flavors. This is why red wine bottles are dark tinted and Chardonnay bottles yellowish. Obviously, light causes the bad kind of aging, so store your wine away from bright areas unless you expect to consume it very soon. You may have noticed that some wine comes in clear bottles. This is a perfect indicator to drink it right away. These wines will not improve with age so are not sold in protective tinted containers.

Okay, now how long should you store various wine varieties? Here are some very general aging guidelines based on years after the vintage date (year the fruit was harvested) not years from purchase:

Within a few months: Sparkling wines and light delicate fruity whites in clear bottles such as Pinot Gris or Chenin Blanc

  • 0 – 2 years: Highly aromatic whites such as Riesling, Muscat, Malvasia, and Sauvignon Blanc
  • 1 – 3 years: Age-worthy whites such as Chardonnay, Viognier, Roussanne, or Marsanne
  • 1 – 4 years: Lighter reds including most Sangiovese, Pinot Noir, Grenache, Tempranillo
  • 2 – 5 years: Medium reds such as Zinfandel, Barbera, Merlot, Primitivo
  • 2 – 7 years: Medium/heavy reds including Syrah, Cabernet Franc, Malbec
  • 2 – 10 years: Heavier reds such as Cabernet Sauvignon, Petite Sirah, Red Ports

So, you might want to avoid the 5-year-old bottle of Sauvignon Blanc in the bargain bin. Of course, there are wide variations within varieties due to growing conditions, winemaking styles, and personal preferences. Do some experimenting and find out what works best for you. If you’re the organized type, segregate your wines by age-ability and keep notes or perhaps even a wine journal. Creating your own personal cellar can be extremely fun, and sharing it even more so. Cheers!


Do you have any tips for home wine blending?

Sure! It’s surprising how rarely anyone does this at home since blending can be a powerful tool for improving a deficient wine, or to modify one having a style that doesn’t meet your expectations. I suppose the reluctance might have something to do with opening several bottles at once and then having to drink them all (darn!) before they spoil (although if a bottle is refilled completely and tightly closed it should hold up just fine for several days).

Here are some general blending tips:

Wine Problem To Fix, Add Wine With Varieties to Add
Flabby, no “zing” High acidity Sangiovese, Barbera, Sauv. Blanc
Low color High color Syrah, Petite Sirah, Petit Verdot
Thin, watery High viscosity Syrah, Petite Sirah, Viognier
No fruity aromas High fruit characters Grenache, Sangiovese, Merlot
Tannic, astringent Smooth mouthfeel Merlot, Zinfandel, Syrah
Green, weedy High fruit, strong flavor Syrah, Grenache, Viognier
High alcohol “hot” Low alcohol Check alcohol on label
No finish Persistent flavors Cabernet, Grenache, Petite Sirah
Weak flavors Strong flavors Mourvedre, Cab Franc, Syrah
Overpowering Modest character Tempranillo, Sangiovese, Merlot
Too oaky No oak Determine by taste

Hosting your own blending party can make for a very entertaining event. All you need is measuring containers, lots of wine glasses, notepads & pens, and a variety of wines. Start with a small taste of each wine and write down characteristics before blending. Most blends turn out great, but some are downright failures! Don’t be afraid to experiment, although starting with small amounts is wise. Sometimes adding even a very small percentage can totally change the wine. So have fun, go forth and blend!


What is the difference between red Zinfandel and white Zinfandel? Are they different grapes?

Both red and white Zinfandel are made from the same variety of grape. The differences come from how the grapes are grown, when they are picked, and how they are processed once at the winery.

White Zinfandel is generally a pinkish color, usually light, but never completely without some pink tint. Vineyards with grapes that are destined for white Zinfandel generally are grown in very fertile areas and warmer climates, with vines that are quite large and productive. Yields from these vineyards may be up to around 15 tons to the acre, with grape clusters nearly a foot long. Since a light color and crisp flavor is desired in white Zinfandel, the fruit is picked early when roughly 18 -20 brix (a technical term for % sugar by weight). The earlier harvest provides grapes that are firmer, lighter colored, and have a higher amount of fruit acids for crispness.

Fruit for red Zinfandel on the other hand, is allowed to become much riper, with brix levels over 24 and sometimes up to 28. Red zin fruit is harvested about 3 – 4 weeks later than fruit for white and farmed more intensively, with yields often as low as 1 – 3 tons per acre. Sometimes the fruit is so ripe and sweet that finished red Zinfandel has a small amount of residual sugar, which helps smooth out the big flavors and high alcohols.

In winemaking, Zinfandel grapes for white are pressed (the juice squeezed out) as the very first step, prior to fermentation. The pressed juice has a slight pink color because only a small amount of red pigments are released from the skins during pressing. In wine grapes only the skins have color, the juice is colorless. For red Zinfandel, the entire grape is fermented with the skins included, and pressing happens after the yeast fermentation is complete. Enzymes naturally provided by growing fermentation yeast and sometimes added by the winemaker, soften the grape skins and release the red pigments into the new wine.

So now you know why white Zinfandel, which has considerably lower input requirements in farming and winemaking, commands a much lower price than red zin. We hope you enjoy our 2007 Zinfandel, a robust red wine perfect for a fall or winter barbecue. Cheers!
–Doug Wiens, Winemaker


Syrah is sometimes described as “thick and syrupy”. Why is that?

There are probably several reasons for this oft-used description. First, the grape naturally produces wine with high viscosity and rich mouth-feel. Second, characteristics of this variety’s ripening process often result in high sugars. Third, in order to get the richest flavors from Syrah, winemakers generally prefer to let the fruit get fully ripe before harvest.

Syrah is a very highly colored grape with skins that easily break down during fermentation. This results in wine containing much more of the components that add to a “thick” feel. Glycerol, tannins, ethanol, and a bit of residual sugar are the four major contributors. Glycerol (also known as glycerin) is a very viscous substance that contributes both mouth-feel and a slight sweetness. Tannins are the natural backbone of wine astringency & texture, and though Syrah contains a fairly large amount of this component, it tends to be softer and rounder than in some other wines such as Cabernet Sauvignon. Alcohol is often high in Syrah and some residual sugar present due to its tendency to be quite ripe at harvest.

So, why do the grapes tend to be so ripe with high sugars? Partly it’s because the berries have skins that go from firm to flabby in a matter of days, particularly if there’s any water stress or high temperatures when the grapes are mature. The skins are not really thin as you might find in Pinot Noir or Zinfandel which can cause those varieties to shrivel. Instead, thick though they may be, ripe Syrah skins senesce, get soft, and very quickly lose their ability to retain water. Pick me today or I’m boarding the raisin train tomorrow!

Now… why do we take the raisin risk? Because Syrah made from unripe grapes can have very off-putting green flavors, harsh tannins, and a rather weedy character. Most of this grape’s wonderful assets only express themselves with fully ripe fruit. Rich jammy blackberry flavors, spicy black pepper aromas, and complex earthy notes come out when patience rules the harvest. We’re sure you’ll find that our ’07 Syrah October wine club release shows all these great things quite admirably. Cheers!


What is Petit Verdot?

Petit Verdot (pronounced peh-TEE vehr-DOUGH and means “little green”) is a red wine grape classically used in Bordeaux-style blends and American Cabernets to add color, tannins, and complexity. Generally it’s used in small amounts, 5% or less of the blend, due to its tendency to be astringent and have strong vinous (green/grassy) flavors & aromas reminiscent of pencil shavings. However, when allowed to become very ripe in warm climates such as Temecula, the vinous characters are less pronounced so higher amounts can be used. Fully mature fruit offers spice, leather, and floral notes. Our newly released ’07 Meritage is 25% Petit Verdot so is quite evident among the wine’s flavors.

Wines with significant amounts of PV are best served with foods having an herbal character. Balsamic also pairs nicely, as do robust high-flavor artisan olive oils and pepper-jack cheese. It’s a great food wine that’s not easily overpowered!


It seems like wine always tastes different at home than it did at the winery. Why is that?

Most likely the differences you experience are from serving temperature, background smells, or variations in your palate. Your perception of how the wine tastes can be greatly influenced by personal and environmental conditions. When preparing a wine for bottling, we batch the wine up in a tank, then test and taste over a period of a couple months and slowly make careful winemaking adjustments before putting it in the bottle. This allows for averaging out our tasting experiences, giving us a truer overall impression of the wine. We'd never judge or adjust a finished wine based on a single day's tasting observations.

Serving temperature can have a big impact on how a wine tastes and feels. We try to keep our tasting room fairly cool, generally 65 – 70 degrees (though a little warmer in summer). So, the red wine you try in the tasting room will be at our room temperature. We serve whites chilled, and they are held in cooling chambers throughout the day to keep them cool. In general, wine is better cool rather than warm, although if too cold it will have scarce aroma. Wine served too warm can have an alcohol burning sensation and can give off volatiles that are less pleasant. As a general rule, serve whites at around 50 degrees (halfway between room and refrigerator temperatures) and reds at around 65 degrees (just below room temperature).

So what's this about background smells? We've all experienced going into a room and being punched in the nose by some aroma (cat box, room freshener, garlic) but after being there for awhile we don't smell the aroma anymore. Oddly enough, it seems that background scents become noticeable again when sniffing wine, although we might wrongly attribute the background to the wine itself. Recently at the winery, we were having our gas tank & cylinders refilled by a propane truck, a process that took about 20 minutes. I was in the cellar at the time sampling several tanks, and was very worried that all of our wines had a terrible pungent gassy smell! The propane aroma had seeped into the room slowly so that I didn't notice it until sniffing the wine. Imagine my relief after going outside and seeing the truck. So anyway, take your wine glass out on your patio and see how much its scent changes. You'll be surprised!

Lastly, let's talk about how we ourselves can affect how a wine tastes. Our palates are variable, fallible, changeable, and highly impacted by what we've recently eaten, time of day, medicines we're taking, how we're feeling, and how many drinks we've had. If a wine tastes odd to you, try it with food or with different food. Put the cork in and try it again later. Or, have a glass of a “warm-up” wine that you know and like, then go back to the other. Sometimes, just by being more relaxed after the first glass, everything afterward is better! Most importantly, don't make snap judgments. For me, the best wines ALWAYS taste better at the last sip vs. the first. So sit back, swirl, smell, sip, and savor!


So, why is wine aged in oak barrels?

Partly, it’s tradition. More important, however, are all the benefits that oak brings to wine. It helps protect the wine from spoilage, stabilizes color, and adds desirable flavors & texture. Oak contains compounds called tannins, which suppress bacterial growth, scavenge oxygen, and give wine additional silky rich mouth-feel. These and other beneficial compounds from the oak are slowly leached out into the wine as it ages. In order to achieve the ideal characteristics, a very long “cooperage” (barrel-making) process must be accomplished.

Before the oak planks are made into barrels, they are stacked and aged 2-3 years outdoors in the elements to make the “woody” flavors more desirable and subtle. After the barrels are constructed, the inner surface is toasted using various methods. Traditionally, a small fire made by burning oak scraps is used. The “cooper” (barrel maker) slowly and carefully spins the open-ended new cask over the flames, toasting the oak staves to bring out flavors of caramel, vanilla, and spices such as cinnamon and cloves. Different toasting methods can vary the amounts and mix of flavors, allowing the winemaker to choose among various barrel brands in order to give a particular wine the perfect complimentary oak flavors.

Oak wine barrels are made using either European (including French) or American oak. European and American oak trees are different species, so the wood has slightly different characteristics. European oak barrels tend to add more subtle flavors, with higher amounts of vanilla and caramel. American oak is generally spicier, with bolder toasty flavors of cinnamon, cloves, and ginger. Winemakers use these differences when choosing barrels for a given wine.

Heavier wines such as Syrah and Zinfandel do quite nicely in American oak. Lighter wines including Pinot Noir and Sangiovese are more often put into French/European barrels so that the wood does not overpower the wine. Sometimes, however, with wines such as Cabernet Sauvignon that can be quite heavy, French oak is usually preferred since the vanilla and caramel aromas are a nice complement to Cab’s dark & herbal notes. The barrel provides balance, elegance, and enhances fruit aromas. The wine to barrel marriage is very important, and we at Wiens test numerous combinations before deciding which matches do best.

So, the next time you’re in the barrel room, take a moment to study the different types of barrels. They truly are the winemaker’s spice rack!


This bottle of Cabernet Sauvignon tastes like bell peppers, what the heck is that?

Vegetable-like or grassy flavors are fairly common in some Bordeaux varietals including Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc, Merlot, and Sauvignon Blanc. These types of grapes have naturally occurring levels of a family of chemical compounds called pyrazines, which are the source of the flavor. In very small amounts, pyrazines can add complexity and make a wine more interesting. If there’s too much, however, the wine can be unpleasant and unbalanced, with any fruit flavors suppressed and masked by the veggieness.

So, how do winemakers limit pyrazines in their wines? It all happens in the vineyard by managing grapevine canopy size & density, and by allowing the grapes to fully ripen before harvest. It takes sunlight on the grape clusters to develop nice fruity flavors, and lack of sunlight will favor vegetative flavors. Vineyard canopies (a term for the collective vine & leaf portion of the vines) that are very large, overgrown, and dense will yield poorer flavored fruit. By cutting back on irrigation water, fertilizing less, and doing dormant pruning to control canopy size, grape quality (and hence wine quality) is improved because more sunlight reaches the clusters. In addition, the vineyard manager might decide in the springtime to thin out some vine shoots or even pull off some leaves in the fruiting zone to allow more sun penetration.

Now you may ask, why don’t all vineyard managers do these things if they will make their grapes better? Money, of course! Intense vineyard management practices not only cost more in labor, but also result in lower fruit yields. If the vineyard is not owned, controlled or at least strongly influenced by the winery & winemaker, the natural tendency on the vineyard side is to get the highest grape tonnage possible with the lowest possible cost of production. Cheap wines are made from cheap grapes, which is why a $5 - $10 bottle of Cabernet is more likely to taste like vegetables than a $30+ bottle.


Hey, what's that crud in the bottom of my wine?

Believe it or not, it's often a sign that the wine is very good! Wine is a wonderful combination of thousands of natural components and essences. The best wines generally have higher concentrations of the things that make wine good – flavors, pigments, fruit acids, polysaccharides, tannins, and alcohol all add to the sensory experience elicited by the finest wines.

You may have noticed that I didn't say anything about wine containing bits of stem, leaves, seeds, grape skin, or shards of glass! Only in the most extremely remote, unusual, mistake of circumstance would any of these contaminants ever find their way through the maze of screening, racking, fining, testing, and filtering and into a wine bottle. The vast majority of sediment in wine is formed from natural chemical reactions AFTER bottling.

So, back to the question. Most often, the sediment in wine bottles is largely potassium bitartrate (same as "cream of tartar" used in cooking, which is commercially derived from wine). Bitartrate forms when tartaric acid, the major fruit acid in wine, changes to an insoluble salt form in the presence of alcohol and low temperatures. When the wine is first bottled, the tartaric acid is completely soluble and unseen. After time, especially if the wine is held under cold conditions, the tartrates take on a crystalline, insoluble form and fall to the bottom (or to the top if the bottle is stored inverted). These are often the chunks you see. They are harmless. They are also insoluble, so shaking will just temporarily suspend them and not eliminate them. They will end up in EVERY poured glass instead of just the last!

In highly extracted wines, and wines made from intensively farmed grapes, the tartrate crystals are often joined by aggregated particles of other wine components. These too are harmless, and can be an indicator of a "big" wine. Europeans are very tolerant of sediment, perhaps thinking of it as a sign that the wine is minimally processed. Americans, on the other hand, generally view any particles in wine as a defect. This difference in opinion might stem from the fact that Americans tend to consume their wines with little aging, while European wines are more often aged for several years, giving the particles more time to form.

The best way to eliminate the sediment is to either decant the wine carefully from the bottle into a decanter prior to serving, or simply pour all glasses (especially the last) slowly and leave the final half ounce or so of wine along with the sediment in the bottom of the bottle.


What are the labeling rules on wine for things like vintage, appellation, and varietal?

Here are some rules as specified the TTB (Tax & Trade Bureau) for wine labeling:

Vintage – The vintage for a wine is the year that the grapes were harvested. Wines from a different year can be blended in up to 5% without changing the vintage if the wine has a specific appellation (such as Temecula Valley or Napa Valley ). You can blend in up to 15% from other years if the wine is not labeled appellation specific, instead using county or state designation.

Appellation – 85% of the grapes used in making the wine must be grown in the appellation stated on the label. Appellations are known geographic wine areas with distinctive physical features such as soil, climate, and elevation.

Varietal – 75% of the grapes used in making the wine must be of the varietal stated on the label. This blending leeway is very important to winemakers in order to provide wines with high levels of complexity and quality.


What exactly are all the things in wine?

For a typical dry red wine, if you were to consider it having 1,000 parts, here is the approximate component breakdown:

Water 770
Ethanol (alcohol) 140
Fruit & Fermentation Acids 65
Fruit Sugars 20
Minerals 2
Amino Acids 1
Phenolic Compounds
(colors & tannins)
Aroma Compounds 1

You want to know what’s really interesting about this? The last 2 things on the list, which total only two parts in a thousand, are what make a great red wine different from a jug wine. These last two things give you all the wonderful aromas, flavors, texture, color, and age-ability. There is some contribution to these components by oak barrels, and some come directly from yeasts during winemaking, but the most important and impactful are created when just the right amount of sunlight shines on grape skins in the vineyard. Many are precursor components that fermentation and aging bring to expression. Others come directly from the grape and change little over a wine’s life. However, the most critical message is that great wine starts with sunshine!

A winemaker can adjust fruit acids and fruit sugars in the cellar, and can even add high-colored grape juice concentrate and enological tannins, but the sunshine aromas are still the un-cracked “magic ingredient” of a fabulous wine. Did you know that within this tiny one part in a thousand, wine contains about 500 different aroma compounds? 500! This is why wine is so magic, and why we at Wiens grow about 80% of our own grapes. The rest are sourced from very carefully selected producers. Every decision we make in our vineyards is made with wine quality as the highest, almost our ONLY priority, keeping our grape clusters smiling happily in the sunshine. We hope you can taste the difference!


How Do I Open Sparkling Wine?

  • Chill the bottle to around 45 degrees Fahrenheit.
  • Remove the foil at the top (some bottles have tabs to help with this).
  • Loosen the wire cage by untwisting the "key" or wire loop. Maintain pressure on the cork with your hand until you actually remove the cork.  Remember, the pressure is about 90 psi which is about 3 times the air pressure in a car tire.
  • Drape a towel over the bottle and open the bottle over the sink (see next step).
  • Using both hands, gently twist the bottle while firmly grasping the cork with the opposite hand. Do not point towards people, windows, or fragile items. The cork should begin to loosen and gently ease into your hand until it pops from the bottle.
  • To prevent glass overflow, pour only about an inch into the glass then let the bubbles subside. Continue filling the glass. Cheers!